Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is caused by a virus transmitted by

Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquito. ZIKV offers white speckles on its body and legs, is an aggressive biter, and is known to bite during day time with peaks during early afternoon and late afternoon/early evening hours. Two main mosquito species that have been implicated in outbreaks of Zika virus disease (ZIKVD) are and is the same mosquito that spreads dengue and chikungunya viruses, rendering it a triple threat mosquito. HISTORY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION ZIKV, closely related to the Spondweni serocomplex, was first isolated in 1947 from a monkey (Rhesus 766) living in the Zika forest of Uganda near Lake Victoria.[1] The scientists while carrying out research on yellow fever accidentally chanced upon the virus. They successfully isolated a transmissible agent from the serum of infected monkey that developed fever and dubbed it as ZIKV after the name of the forest it lived in. A second isolation happened at the same site in January 1948 from an arboreal mosquito africanus in Zika forest.[2] Until this period, the virus was not known to cause any recognizable infection in humans. Later in 1952, it was detected for the first time in humans in Uganda and Tanzania, when neutralizing antibodies to ZIKV were found in their sera. It was thereafter discovered that the virus was mosquito-borne and could infect people along with monkeys. From 1951 to 2006, verified ZIKV infection instances were just sporadically reported in human beings and had been limited by two dozen buy CC-401 countries of Africa and elements of Southeast Asia [Desk 1]. Appropriately, two lineages of ZIKV: African lineage and Asian lineage had been referred to. ZIKV was recognized for just 14 instances in human beings in this lengthy period of half hundred years. Table 1 Pass on of Zika virus across parts of Africa and Asia from 1951-2006 Open in another windowpane ZIKA VIRUS OUTBREAK IN YAP April 2007 is known as a landmark period so far as spread of ZIKVD can be involved since it was during 2007, the virus popped outside Africa and Asia to influence an entire human population on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated Says of Micronesia. The island reported 185 instances of suspected ZIKV disease from April to August 2007 to the Center for Illnesses Control and Avoidance (CDC); which 49 were verified by polymerase chain response (PCR) buy CC-401 and 59 were probable instances as they carried IgM antibodies to ZIKV.[3] This outbreak was significant as a huge population was affected, and there were no conceivable monkey carriers seen. Before the Yap outbreak, ZIKVD was believed to primarily infect primates, and only occasionally cross over into humans.[4] ZIKA VIRUS OUTBREAK IN FRENCH POLYNESIA The second outbreak surfaced in October 2013 in French Polynesia and extended till April 2014 resulting in over 30,000 patients presenting to health-care facilities for medical consultation.[4] The epidemic peaked in the 9th week with a decreasing trend seen after mid-December 2013. Nearly 8,746 suspected cases of ZIKV infection and 383 confirmed cases were identified by the syndromic surveillance sentinel network of French Polynesia. This outbreak was unique as a spike in neurological complications and 42 cases of buy CC-401 GuillainCBarr syndrome (GBS) were reported simultaneously. The doctors naturally started correlating these with ZIKV infection. However, a direct association between ZIKV infection and its severe presentation required establishment, as simultaneous prolonged co-circulation of dengue virus was also seen. Death related to infection was not ERK1 reported. During this same period, ZIKV outbreaks were also notified in three other islands of Pacific Region: Cook Islands (932 suspected cases and 54 confirmed cases), New Caledonia (1400 confirmed cases), and Easter Island (89 suspected cases and 51 confirmed cases). These outbreaks further confirmed the propensity of the arbovirus to spread beyond its historically affected regions of Africa and South East Asia.[4] The virus identified on Easter Island was found to closely resemble the one identified during the French Polynesian outbreak.[5,6] Later in 2015, autochthonous ZIKV infection cases were also seen in Samoa, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, Vanuatu, Tonga, and American Samoa.[7] ZIKA VIRUS OUTBREAK IN BRAZIL With the Brazil outbreak, potential for virus spreading to an unaffected distant location was noticed. Between February and April 2015, an abrupt splurge of instances with pores and skin rashes was reported in Brazil but didn’t match suspected instances of dengue, measles, or rubella. The 1st record of locally obtained Zika disease was verified by Brazil’s National Reference Laboratory in-may 2015. ZIKV continuing to pass on and affect as huge as 1.5 million people.[8] By July 2015, 12 says of Brazil got verified ZIKV infection predicated on laboratory testing. Additional pass on became dominant after October 2015.