Background The question “Where are you?” can be a common one asked by doctors in North European countries and America when confronted with medical symptoms not normal of their country. Argentina during the last 40 years presented with a history of high fever and shivering anemia leukopenia and splenomegaly over two years. Argentinian doctors did not suspect visceral leishmaniasis even when the histological analysis revealed the presence of “intracytoplasmatic spheroid particles compatible with fungal or parasitic infection”. After a serious deterioration in her health she was taken to Spain where she was evaluated and visceral leishmaniasis was established. Specific identification of the parasite was done by PCR-ELISA isoenzyme electrophoresis and RAPD-PCR. Conclusion We would like to point out that: i) cases such as the one described here which appear in non-endemic areas can pass unnoticed by the clinical physician. ii) in countries in which these introduced cases reside in-depth parasitological studies are required into vectors and possible reservoirs to rule out the rare case of Hydralazine hydrochloride local infection and once infection has taken place to ensure that this does not spread by anthroponotic transmission or a competent reservoir. Background Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by the obligate intracellular protozoa Leishmania and is transmitted by the bite from the fine sand soar. Leishmania presently infects about 12 million people Hydralazine hydrochloride in 88 countries with an approximated occurrence of 0.5 million cases of visceral leishmaniasis and 1.5 million Hydralazine hydrochloride cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis http://www.who.int/tdr/diseases/leish/diseaseinfo.htm. The various clinical types of leishmaniasis will be the total consequence of infection by different species of the parasite. Visceral leishmaniasis fatal if remaining neglected is certainly due to L typically. donovani L. infantum and L. chagasi (synonimous to L. infantum). Visceral leishmaniasis because of L. infantum can be a zoonosis where dogs will be the primary Hydralazine hydrochloride reservoirs. In adition to the traditional zoonotic routine L. infantum disease could in a few complete instances pass on following an anthroponotic routine. L. infantum is in charge of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis [1-3] also. The query “Where are you?” can be a common one asked by doctors in North European countries and America when confronted with medical symptoms not normal of their nation. You’ll find so many instances of visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed in individuals who’ve been Hydralazine hydrochloride exploring in the Mediterranean basin or Central or SOUTH USA [4-8]. An identical situation happens with veterinary cosmetic surgeons and canine leishmaniasis. This query must also occur in the treatment centers of developing countries where non-autochthonous cases like the one referred to here can show up. Case demonstration A 71-season old Spanish female that has been surviving in Mendoza Argentina over the last 40 years. She’s experienced good health insurance and will not take regular medication often. In June 1998 she started to present Rabbit Polyclonal to OR5M3. high fever and shivering primarily at night and poor health and wellness. She was posted to in-depth medical research in Mendoza Argentina without achieving any definitive analysis. Laboratory examination exposed: haemoglobin: 9.4 g/dL WBC: 1600 /mL with 13% lymphocytes and 4% mononuclear cells and polyclonal immunoglobulinopathy. She splenomegaly had. She was treated with antipyretic real estate agents (Metamizol) and empirical antibiotics (cephalosporines) and in Oct 1999 was posted to splenectomy but continuing using the same symptomatology. Histopathological research from the spleen exposed “Giemsa-stained histocytic intracytoplasmatic spheroid contaminants appropriate for fungal or parasitic disease”. Regardless of this analysis Leishmania was not really suspected no particular treatment Hydralazine hydrochloride was prescribed consequently. After a significant deterioration in her health insurance and on demand of her nephew physician she was taken to Spain where she was admitted in May 2000 to the Hospital Virgen de las Nieves de Granada where on the basis of previous findings visceral leishmaniasis was suspected. Bone marrow puncture was carried out and blood was extracted to obtain serum. The specific antibody titre against Leishmania detected by indirect immunofluorescence was 1/1280 . Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears  revealed the presence of amastigotes in bone marrow and the promastigote form was observed in Minimum Essential Medium Eagle (Gibco) supplemented with 20% fetal.