Reducing tobacco make use of among adolescents in China symbolizes a significant task for global cigarette control. theory-based analysis could possibly be one potential description for the persistently high degrees of cigarette use among youthful Chinese after many decades of cigarette control attempts. A search of the published literature in Chinese and English exposed that few studies on tobacco use in Chinese adolescents were theory-guided and all were conducted from the same study team (e.g. Guo et al. 2007 Guo Unger Azen MacKinnon C13orf18 & Johnson 2012 Guo Unger Palmer Chou & Johnson 2013 In addition theories were described in only three reported smoking prevention treatment trials carried out in China (Chen Fang Li Stanton & Lin 2006 Chou et al. 2006 Wen et al. 2010 Furthermore actually in these treatment trials no detailed information was offered about integrating the theories into the Voreloxin treatment programs and no evaluation data (e.g. mediation effect analysis) were reported to support the part that the theory played in assisting the observed treatment effect. 1.3 Purposes and Hypotheses of this Study In the present study we were guided from the PMT to forecast tobacco use intention and behavior among adolescents in China. The purpose of this study Voreloxin is definitely to demonstrate the energy of PMT a Western-based and empirically tested behavioral theory to advance our understanding of tobacco use behavior among Chinese adolescents. In addition findings of this study will provide data supporting tobacco use prevention in China with potential to extend to additional developing countries further facilitating global tobacco control attempts. As suggested by PMT principles we hypothesized that smoking would be negatively associated with perceived threat (i.e. severity and vulnerability) of smoking effects and perceived efficacy (i.e. self-efficacy and response efficacy) of not smoking. Further we hypothesized that smoking would be positively associated with perceived rewards (i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic rewards) of smoking and perceived costs of not smoking. 2 Method 2.1 Participants Participants were vocational high school students recruited in Wuhan China. Vocational high school education in China is a three-year employment technical and focused skills training curriculum. Chinese language vocational high universities enroll college students who either elect never to progress to educational high universities or fail the entry exam essential to progress to these high universities after completing the Nine-Year Compulsory Education system. Students in marks 1 and 2 had been included but college students in quality 3 had been excluded due to the time dedication to arrangements for graduation and work. We elected to focus on vocational high universities rather than educational high schools due to the bigger prevalence of wellness risk behaviours (e.g. 26 smoked smoking cigarettes before month) among college students in these universities (weighed against 8% of educational students who reported cigarette smoking before month) (Johnson et al. 2006 Corcoran & Allegrante Voreloxin 1989 The scholarly study was conducted in 2011 in Wuhan China. Wuhan may be the provincial Capital of Hubei Province situated in central China with a complete population greater than nine million and the average level of financial advancement for China (Country wide Bureau of Figures China 2011 College students were randomly chosen by course to take part in the study. We first compiled a list of typical vocational high schools in Wuhan with regard to several key factors including school size diversity of training programs offered and time to reach to the school within one hour. After contacting the listed schools we selected one for which the school administration agreed to participate. Among the total 35 separate eligible classes in the school 17 were randomly selected using the random digit method. Students in the selected classes who were present on the day when the survey was administered were invited to participate and those who provided parental consent and participant assent were administered the survey. Among the total 556 students invited to participate three refused yielding a final sample of 553 (99.46%). Participants were 278 girls (50% of the sample) and Voreloxin 275 young boys aged 15-18 years of age (= 16.28 =.