Objective This study examined the early childhood precursors and adolescent outcomes associated with gradeschool peer rejection and victimization among children oversampled for aggressive-disruptive behaviors. structural models focused on three developmental periods. Parents and teachers rated aggressive behavior emotion dysregulation and internalizing problems in kindergarten and grade 1 (waves 1-2); peer sociometric nominations tracked “least liked” and victimization in grades 2 3 and 4 (waves 3-5); and youth reported on social problems depressed mood school adjustment difficulties and delinquent activities in early adolescence (grade 7 wave 6). Results Structural models revealed that early aggression and emotion dysregulation (but not internalizing behavior) made unique contributions to gradeschool peer rejection; only emotion dysregulation made unique contributions to gradeschool victimization. Early internalizing problems and gradeschool victimization uniquely predicted adolescent social problems and depressed mood. Early aggression and gradeschool peer rejection uniquely predicted adolescent school adjustment difficulties and delinquent activities. Conclusions Aggression and emotion dysregulation at school entry increased risk for peer Rocuronium bromide Rocuronium bromide rejection and victimization and these two types of Rabbit Polyclonal to Cullin 1. peer adversity had distinct as well as shared risk and adjustment correlates. Results suggest that the emotional functioning and peer experiences of aggressive-disruptive children deserve further attention in developmental and clinical research. = .30 (Buhs et al. 2006 to = .60 (Knack et al. 2012 Aggression Emotion Dysregulation Internalizing Behaviors and Peer Difficulties In the early elementary school years aggressive children are at high risk for peer problems (Ladd & Troop-Gordon 2003 Aggressive behavior is off-putting to peers but in addition early aggression is often accompanied by other child characteristics that elicit censure from peers such as low levels of prosocial skills emotional volatility and dysregulation and anxious-withdrawn social behaviors (Bierman 2004 Hodges & Perry 1999 Some Rocuronium bromide of the Rocuronium bromide poor social outcomes associated with aggression may be due to these concurrent difficulties. For example Burke and Loeber (2010) have argued that it is the emotional negativity and volatility associated with early aggressive-oppositional behavior that undermines social adjustment and predicts later depression. Emotion dysregulation which includes a tendency to over-react to stress or threat along with difficulties modulating and managing emotion once aroused (Eisenberg Fabes Guthrie & Reiser 2000 creates vulnerability to both peer rejection and victimization (Schwartz Proctor & Chien 2001 Internalizing problems (e.g. crying easily feeling anxious and sad withdrawal) which are elevated in samples of aggressive children are also associated with peer difficulties particularly victimization (Boivin et al. 1995 Graham & Juvonen 1998 Troop-Gordon & Ladd 2005 Thus aggression emotion dysregulation and internalizing problems may each elicit peer dislike and victimization and may in turn be aggravated by hostile peer treatment (Leadbeater & Hoglund 2009 Despite a relatively large data base on these early childhood correlates of peer rejection and victimization studies have not identified how these child characteristics put children at risk for rejection versus victimization and for adolescent maladjustment. Aggression and Developmental Pathways Associated with Peer Rejection A number of studies suggest that aggressive behavior is a primary predictor of peer rejection in early elementary school and in turn being rejected by peers increases the chronicity of aggression and predicts the emergence of rebellious behavior and delinquent activity in adolescence (Coie & Dodge 1998 For example controlling for kindergarten aggression Miller-Johnson Coie Maumary-Gremaud Bierman & CPPRG (2002) found that first grade peer rejection enhanced the prediction of aggressive conduct problems in fourth grade. From a conceptual standpoint peer rejection increases risk for chronic aggression and emerging antisocial behavior in at least two ways. First it reduces opportunities for positive peer socialization experiences (Buhs et al. 2006 Powers Bierman & CPPRG 2013 That is as well-liked classmates play with each other rejected children are often left to play alone or with younger children (Hektner Rocuronium bromide August & Realmuto 2000 This segregation from more socially-skillful peers results in lower levels of exposure to the types of social support and social exchanges that foster social competence.