People with congregational tendencies such as the prison inmates constitute an important target group in the global efforts towards control of tuberculosis (TB). contamination. The overall TB prevalence found was 1.2% (2/164). Significant risk factors that could facilitate disease transmission in the prison included lack of BCG immunization (p = 0.017); history of contact with TB patients (p = 0.020); prolonged cough (p = 0.016) and drug abuse (p = 0.019). Our findings of 1 1.2% undetected pulmonary TB infection among the inmates though Tegobuvir (GS-9190) low; still reiterate previous observation that the prison setting constitutes a veritable environment for TB transmission and a threat to public health. Efforts are therefore needed to institute routine screening and reduce the risk factors associated with TB transmission among prison inmates in Nigeria. Keywords: Tuberculosis prevalence prison public health Nigeria Introduction An estimated 8-10 Tegobuvir (GS-9190) million people are incarcerated worldwide on any given day with many more detained for short periods of time . The demographics of the prison population such as low socioeconomic status large number of migrants homeless and drug users in addition to the situational and environmental vulnerabilities of the prison setting like overcrowding poor ventilation [2-3] increase the risk of contracting tuberculosis (TB) among prisoners. The scourge of TB in prisons remains a persistent problem; the rates among inmates remain much higher from 5 to 50 times than those of national average across both the developed and the developing world [4-8]. Population of prisoners represents a high proportion of poorly educated and socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals who have increased risk of diseases including TB infection . Other conditions that exacerbate the risk of TB among prisoners include intravenous drug abuse; overcrowding poor nutrition poor hygiene and poor access to prison health services. Whilst several studies have been conducted on TB in Nigeria most however focused on TB patients attending DOTS centres and other people who are probably at risk including those with immunocompromised conditions. The people with congregational tendencies such as prison inmates who in most cases come to congregate from different settings have been grossly neglected. Inmates have long been recognized to be at a higher risk than the general population for active TB with cases of TB in prisons accounting for up to 25% of a country’s burden . Despite this little or no attention is given to assess the health status of prison inmates before entry into the prison or release to the general society. The gaps in establishing the TB status among prisoners undermines the efforts of the public health sector towards effective control Tegobuvir (GS-9190) of TB in Nigeria hence the imperative of this study. Materials and methods Study design and site This cross sectional study was conducted in Ibadan Oyo State a cosmopolitan city in southwestern Nigeria. Oyo State has a total of 3000 new cases of human TB based on those presenting with persistent cough at DOTS centres in 2013 (Data from Oyo State TB Control Programme). The major prison within the Tegobuvir (GS-9190) state Agodi Prison was the site used for this study. Ethical Approval The protocol for this study was reviewed and approved by the University of Ibadan/University College Hospital Institution Review Board. Community entry We obtained permission to conduct the study from the management of the prison and then identified their peculiar set-up regulations guiding access to the inmates and their operations. This was in view of protecting the rights of the subjects. Sampling strategy and data collection Based on the earlier reported 7% prevalence of TB in the state a sample size of 100 prison inmates was calculated. A total of 20 inmates were randomly selected from each cell per time. After explaining the purpose of the study Gdf11 to them consenting inmates were then asked to produce sputum into sterile containers provided. Thereafter oral interview was conducted to obtain socio-demographic and Tegobuvir (GS-9190) other data such as previous history of TB contact with TB patient and length of stay from each consenting prison inmate. The sampling and data collection were done over a period of one month. Laboratory analysis Sample processing Sputum samples were processed using the Becton Dickinson digestion and decontamination procedure (BD Sparks MD USA) . The concentrate thus obtained was inoculated into.