[2] was utilized to calculate the human-edible input of the different ingredients constituting the three TMRs used in the trial

[2] was utilized to calculate the human-edible input of the different ingredients constituting the three TMRs used in the trial. in the utilization of feeds suitable as foods for human consumption, thus improving the sustainability of livestock production. However, the potential benefits of DWB, due to its content in phenolic acids, mainly consisting of ferulic acid with antioxidant properties, have not been well clarified yet. Accordingly, in this experiment, 36 lactating cows divided into three groups received, over a period of 100 days, one of three concentrates including DWB at 0% (DWB0), 10% (DWB10), or 20% (DWB20). The concentrates were formulated to be isoproteic and isoenergetic and, to balance the higher fiber content of the concentrates with DWB, the hay in the diets was slightly reduced. During the trial, the group feed intake and the individual milk production were monitored, and cheese was made with bulk milk from each Poloxime group. Milk yield and microbiological characteristics of milk and cheese were similar among groups, indicating no DWB effect on cows performance and fermentation process. Milk from DWB20 group resulted slightly higher in casein and curd firmness (a2r). In cows fed DWB, the higher polyphenol intake was responsible for higher blood contents of these bioactive compounds, that Poloxime seemed to have contributed in reducing the level of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), which were higher in DWB0 cows. DWB20 cheeses showed a higher polyphenol content, lower number of peroxides, and higher antioxidant capacity than DWB0 cheeses. DWB20 and DWB10 diets resulted less expensive. In addition, the DWB20 group showed the best indexes heFCE (human edible feed conversion efficiency = Tmem27 milk/human edible feed) and NFP (net food production = milk ? human edible food), expressed as crude protein or gross energy. In conclusion, the DWB fed to dairy cows at 12% of diet dry matter (DM) can lead to benefits, such as the improvement of oxidative status of cows, milk quality, shelf-life, and functional properties of cheese, and might contribute to reduce the feeding cost and limit the human-animal competition for feeding sources. family were pour plated on double-layered violet Poloxime red bile glucose agar (VRBGA) and incubated aerobically for 24 h at 37 C. Anaerobiosis Poloxime occurred in hermetically sealed jars added with the AnaeroGen AN25 system (Oxoid, Milan, Italy). Microbiological analyses were carried out in duplicate. All media were purchased from Oxoid. After incubation, for each morphology (shape, surface, color, margin, and elevation) five identical colonies were randomly collected from MRS and M17 and transferred to the corresponding broth media. Bacterial isolates were subjected to the purification procedure after several consecutive subcultures and the cell homogeneity was verified by an optical microscope (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Stuttgart, Germany). Gram-positive (determined by KOH method) and catalase-negative (determined with addition of 5%, v/v, H2O2 to each colony) bacterial cultures, presumed to be LAB, were further characterized phenotypically and grouped for their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. Cell morphology and disposition were evaluated by microscopic inspection. Growth at 15 C and 45 C, heat resistance (60 C for 30 min), NH3 production from arginine, esculin hydrolysis, acid production from carbohydrates, and CO2 production from glucose were determined as previously reported by Gaglio et al. [31]. The coccus-shaped isolates were further grouped according to their growth at pH 9.2 and in the presence of 6.5 g/liter NaCl to separate enterococci able to grow under these conditions from other LAB. 2.2.4. Blood Analysis To assess the oxidative status of cows, blood samples were taken at 0, 14, and 100 days. Individual blood samples from fasted cows were collected in the morning by coccygeal venipuncture. Each blood sample was divided into two aliquots and transferred into two vacutainer tubes (Vacuette, Greiner Bio-One, Kremsmunster, Austria), one containing lithium heparin instantly.