gene (TNF-; R=0.85 and p=0.04). engraftment in all treated groups, suggesting that this cell secretions may underlie the repair mechanism. To determine the paracrine effects of the transplanted cells, cytokines from supernatants from all groups were assessed in vitro. Gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses of the murine myocardium exhibited significant up-regulation of the pro-migratory, pro-angiogenic, and anti-apoptotic targets in groups treated with cardiac lineage cells compared to pluripotent stem cell and control groups. Conclusions This study demonstrates that this cardiac phenotype of hCMs and iCMs salvages the hurt myocardium more effectively than N-Desmethyl Clomipramine D3 hydrochloride undifferentiated stem cells through their differential paracrine effects. cellular and molecular assays to confirm paracrine mechanism of action. METHODS Detailed experimental methods are available in the Online Product Cell preparations hESCs collection H7 were purchased from WiCell Research Institute26. Monoclonal iPSCs lines were generated by contamination of blood mononuclear cells with non-integrating Sendai computer virus delivering OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN-28, short-hairpin RNA for P53 and EBNA127, 28. Zinc finger nuclease technology was used to integrate a reporter gene made up of firefly luciferase29. Electrophysiology of hCMs and iCMs Whole cell action potentials were recorded by standard patch-clamp technique, as previously described13, 30, 31. Acute myocardial injury (MI) model and intra-myocardial delivery of cells All experimental N-Desmethyl Clomipramine D3 hydrochloride protocols were approved by Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal N-Desmethyl Clomipramine D3 hydrochloride Care (APLAC) at Stanford School of Medicine. MIs were induced in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) beige male mice (90-120 days; Charles River Laboratories) by ligation of the mid left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) through a left thoracotomy. A blinded doctor injected 60 l of following cells (500,000) in a 50:50 mixture of PBS and Matrigel (Corning) into the anterolateral wall: (1) hESCs (n=9), (2) iPSCs (n=8), (3) hCMs (n=9), (4) iCMs (n=14) and (5) PBS control (n=10). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Mice were imaged at week 2 and 4 after LAD ligation to evaluate LVEF and myocardial viability. Mice were injected with 0.7 cc/kg of SeeMore (Eagle Vision Pharmaceutical) intraperitoneally prior to manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) acquisition32, 33. MRI scanning was randomized and the reader for the study interpretation was blinded. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) Optical BLI was performed at week 2 and 4 after LAD ligation. Ex lover vivo immunohistochemistry of the myocardium Immunohistochemistry assays of mouse myocardium were performed at week 4 after LAD ligation. Sectioning and H&E staining were performed by a blinded pathologist. For other immunochemical analyses, the specimen exhibited experimental conditions and required specific techniques to assess the reagents. These conditions may have unblinded the researcher. Evaluation of the in vitro release of the cytokines from cultured cells hESCs, iPSCs, hCMs, and iCMs (500,000 cells) were cultured in normoxic N-Desmethyl Clomipramine D3 hydrochloride conditions for 24 hours. Their supernatants were harvested and analyzed by Luminex Multiplex Assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Ex lover vivo real-time reverse transcription PT141 Acetate/ Bremelanotide Acetate polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the myocardium tissues Total RNA was isolated from cell-treated, control, and wild-type myocardium at the end of the study, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and analyzed for gene expression by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS Electrophysiologic characterization of the in vitro hCMs and iCMs To validate the cardiac phenotype and compare the contractility of hESC- and iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes, we performed action potential patch-clamp analyses. At days 22-28 of differentiation, sample populations of hCMs and iCMs displayed action potentials (AP) of three major cardiac subtypes, ventricular- (V-), atrial- (A-), and nodal-like (N-like) cardiac myocytes. By comparisons of multiple key action potentials, we decided that hCMs and iCMs were electrophysiologically and functionally comparable (Online Table I and Online Physique I). Sustained engraftment of hCMs and iCMs correlated with improved.