MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate) is a peripheral membrane protein,

MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate) is a peripheral membrane protein, especially abundant in the nervous system, and functionally related to actin business and Ca-calmodulin rules depending on its phosphorylation by PKC. progressive disappearance of phosphorylation at serine 25. Cells treated with PMA, but in the presence of several Ser/Thr phosphatase (PP1, PP2A and PP2W) inhibitors indicated that this dephosphorylation is usually achieved via a phosphatase 2A (PP2A) form. These results provide new evidence regarding the presence of a novel consequence of PKC activation upon the phosphorylated state of MARCKS in VEGFA neural cells, and propose a link between PKC and PP2A activity on MARCKS. Introduction MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate) is usually a ubiquitous natively unfolded protein originally discovered as a major protein kinase C (PKC) substrate in the nervous system [1]. Since then most of its characterization was done taking into account this feature, reinforced by the fact that NSC-23766 HCl IC50 the majority of its molecular interactions have been found to be concentrated at a very small portion of the protein, the effector domain name (ED), where all PKC sites are located [2], [3]. This ED, spanning 25 aminoacids, represents less than 10% of the total protein sequence, but it mediates MARCKS electrostatic conversation with membrane phospholipids, actin binding and NSC-23766 HCl IC50 cross-linking as well as calcium-calmodulin binding. In addition, the amino-terminus is usually co-translationally myristoylated, and this changes aids in plasma membrane association [4], [5]. Genetic manipulations in mice have been extremely useful in beginning to understand MARCKS functions during development. The inactivation of the Marcks gene causes defects in neural development, such as exencephaly, agenesis of interhemispheric commisures, neuronal ectopia, abnormal retinal lamination and retinal folding [6]. Most of these phenotypic features are rescued by transgenic manifestation in KO mice of the intact molecule or a non-myristoylatable form [7]. However, a protein form that is usually nonmyristoylatable and pseudo-phosphorylated at the ED (thus unable to hole to the membrane) was not able to rescue the retinal phenotype, suggesting special functions of the protein in this organ [8]. Oddly enough, all defects could be restored by the manifestation of a mutated form of MARCKS in which the ED was rendered non-phosphorylatable [9], suggesting that phosphorylation by PKC cannot account for all MARCKS functions. Sometime after the finding of MARCKS and the ED phosphorylation, other six serine/threonine phosphorylated residues were found in MARCKS purified from membrane fractions of bovine brain, although its cell type origin was not decided [10]. In NSC-23766 HCl IC50 addition, MARCKS purified from rat brain was found to be a substrate for proline-directed kinases, although the phosphorylated residues were not identified [11]. One of these sites was later acknowledged as serine 113, which matches the MAPK phosphorylation motif, and was in fact phosphorylated in vitro by this kinase [12]. It is usually interesting to point out that another proline-directed kinase, the cyclin-dependent Cdk2, phosphorylated recombinant human MARCKS at serine 26 [13]. This is usually a singular site since it is usually only found phosphorylated in post-mitotic developing neuronal cells, as we showed some time ago [14], [15]. This serine is usually located far away from the ED, residing at the amino NSC-23766 HCl IC50 terminal region of the protein at position 25 in the chick and 26 in several mammalian species (this MARCKS isoform is usually named H25p-MARCKS while pED-MARCKS designates the form phosphorylated at the ED). The stability of MARCKS S25 phosphorylation depends on the honesty of the actin cytoskeleton [16], perhaps via an intra-chain long range effect originated at the actin-binding site located at the ED. On one hand, MARCKS has been studied in many different cell types and has been implicated in cross talks between some signal transduction pathways. On the other hand, there is usually a substantial amount of information concerning its role in secretory and migration activities involving components of the cell cortex (reviewed in [5]). However, information is usually lacking regarding the putative kinases, other than PKC, acting in developing neural cells as well as about the possible associations between these multiple phosphorylation sites in this natively unfolded protein. These questions prompted us to perform a search on the origin of phosphorylation at serine 25 as well as.