A fresh stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid named araguspongine M (1) has been isolated together with 12 known compounds araguspongines B (2) and D (3) dopamine three Rabbit Polyclonal to STAC2. galactosyl diacylglycerols 24 cholesterol 5 6 β-sitosterol and three 5α 8 sterols (11-13) from your marine sponge (formerly previously named as is a common and widely distributed sponge in the shallow lagoon of Palau. areas such as Australia [20 21 Red Sea  Okinawa Japan  India  Philippines  and Palau  (this study). While araguspongine A (xestospongin D) was found in sp. from Singapore . A variety of bioactivities have been reported for araguspongines and xestospongins such as inhibition of rat mind nitric oxide synthase activity  vasodilation activity [7 21 cytotoxicity  antifungal activity  somatostatin and vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibition activity  antimalarial and antituberculosis activities  and inhibition of platelet aggregation . Dopamine (4) was acquired in rather higher yield (0.0022% of wet excess weight). This is the 1st report of the Salmefamol isolation of dopamine from a marine sponge. Sponges are known as primitive animals without a nerve system and thus dopamine may not be produced by the sponge like a neurotransmitter. L-Dopa-3-sulfate has been isolated from your brownish alga  and recent reports suggested that dopamine act as a grazer deterrent in the green alga  and be involved in the allellopathic properties of and . TLC analysis of the components of 11 different marine sponges collected in Palau showed that Dopamine only contained in could be produced by a photosynthetic associate to show deterrent and antifouling effects and correspondingly contribute to the predominance of in that region. In fact numerous [33-36]. These compounds or their precursors may be produced by the symbiotic microorganism. Galactosyl diacylglycerols are widely distributed in vegetation as structural components of the thylakoid membrane. These compounds were Salmefamol also isolated from marine sponges  and sp.  and marine microorganisms such as cyanobacteria [9-10] dinoflagellates [11 12 and a lichenized fungus . HPLC analysis of the glycolipids fractions exposed that there were at least seven small monogalactosyl and digalactosyl diacylglycerols and several trigalactosyl diacylglycerols with this sponge. Compound 5 was the mostly abundant component among them. These lipids would be produced by the photosynthetic symbiont (most likely a sp. sp. cf. . This statement exposed a new source of these Salmefamol sterols. Which means query continues to be raised if the sponges create these sterols or from the associated microorganisms. Parting of microorganisms and sponge cells from in 100 μg/disk even. Conclusions A chemical substance ecology study from the sea sponge led to the isolation of a new stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid named araguspongine M (1) together with 12 known compounds. This is also the first report of the isolation of dopamine from a marine Salmefamol sponge. Dopamine may be produced by an endosymbiotic was collected by skin diving at Iwayama Bay in Palau during the training vessel Shin’yo Maru was anchored at the Marakal Port in March 2003 The sponge was kept in a freezer at ?50 °C on the ship and transported to Japan. The voucher specimen is deposited at the Department of Ocean Sciences Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology as TUF number 03-03-04=2-23. The sponge was identified by Professor P. Bergquist (University of Auckland New Zealand) . Extraction and Isolation The sponge (900g wet weight) was thawed cut into small pieces and extracted with EtOH (3L × 3). The extract was evaporated and partitioned between water and 1-BuOH (saturated with water). The BuOH extract (9.0 g) was separated on an ODS column (eluted with MeOH) to afford four fractions (Fr. B-1-Fr. B-4). Fr. B-1 (1.2 g) was separated by an HW-40 column (MeOH) into two fractions (B-1-1 and B-1-2). Fr. B-1-1 was subjected to ODS column (100% H2O to100% MeOH) and HPLC (ODS 0.1% TFA/H2O) separations to give dopamine (4 20 mg). Araguspongines M (1 6.5 mg) B (2 6 mg) and D (3 5.6 mg) were isolated from Fr. B-1-2 by SiO2 (CHCl3-MeOH-NH4OH 30 20 10 followed by LH-20 (MeOH) column chromatographies. Fr. B-2 (0.9g) was separated by a SiO2 column (CHCl3-MeOH-H2O 90 80 70 and then HPLC on ODS (100% MeOH) to give compounds 5 (50 mg) 6 (3.7 mg) and 7 (12.0 mg). Fr. B-4 (2.5g) was subjected to a SiO2 column (CHCl3-MeOH 100 100 50 25 an LH-20 column (MeOH) and HPLC (ODS 100 MeOH) separations to.