Much research has been devoted to investigating response inhibition and the neuronal processes constituting this essential cognitive faculty. group membership on a single-subject level. Instead, amplitude differences in the Go-P2 originating in the precuneus (BA7) were shown to predict group membership on a single-subject level with up to 64% accuracy. These findings strongly suggest that the behavioral outcome of response inhibition greatly depends on the amount of cognitive resources allocated to early stages of stimulus-response 60643-86-9 manufacture activation during responding. This suggests that research should focus more on early processing steps during responding when trying to understand the origin of interindividual differences in response inhibition processes. = 262 healthy young subjects who were subdivided into two groups based on a median split of the false alarm rate. Subsequently, the nexus between groups, behavioral data [accuracy and reaction times (RTs)], classical ERPs (i.e., P2, N2, and P3), and different predictors identified by means of machine leaning (methods) is compared. METHODS Sample. A sample of = 262 healthy subjects between 18 and 30 yr of age (mean age 60643-86-9 manufacture 23.9 yr, SD = 3.06) was recruited for the study; 114 of the subjects were women. None of the participants enrolled in the study reported a history of neurological or mental illness. The study was approved by the Ethics committee of the Ruhr-Universit?t Bochum, Germany. The study was 60643-86-9 manufacture conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants gave written informed consent and received 10 reimbursement or course credits for their participation. Task. We used a standard Go/Nogo task, which has frequently been used by our group to assess response inhibition performance (Beste et al. 2010; Ocklenburg et al. 2011; Quetscher et al. 2015). Each trial started with the 200-ms presentation of either of the German words DRCK and STOPP (translating to PRESS and STOP) in the center of a 17-in. screen. Rabbit Polyclonal to CD6 Subjects were required to respond with their right index finger on a custom-made button as fast as possible whenever the Go stimulus (DRCK) was presented. Upon presentation of the Nogo stimulus (STOPP), the subjects were required to withhold their Go response. Seventy percent of all trials were Go trials, and subjects were instructed to respond as fast as possible, resulting in a relatively high rate of false alarms (i.e., a lower rate of correct Nogo trials). Each trial was terminated by the participant’s first response (correct responses in Go trials or false alarms in Nogo trials) or ended after 2,200 ms had elapsed (missed Go responses or correct inhibition in Nogo trials). The intertrial interval (ITI) was jittered between 1,000 and 1,300 ms. In total, the paradigm comprised 450 trials. EEG recording and analysis. The EEG was recorded from 64 Ag/AgCl electrodes with the extended 10-20 system against a reference electrode placed at electrode FCz. The sampling rate was 1 kHz. Electrode impedances were kept below 5 k. After recording, the data were downsampled to 256 Hz. Off-line, the EEG was digitally filtered with IIR bandwidth filters at 0.5 and 20 Hz (each with a slope of 48 dB/oct). The data were then visually inspected, and gross artifacts were manually removed from the EEG. Horizontal and vertical eye movements as well as pulse artifacts were removed with an independent component analysis (ICA) (infomax algorithm). After the rectified EEG was reconstructed from the remaining components, electrode FCz was topographically interpolated. The EEG was then segmented into epochs of 800-ms length starting 200 ms prior to the target stimulus onset, which was 60643-86-9 manufacture set to zero. Because of the large number of data files that underwent manual and semiautomatic correction, an automatic artifact rejection procedure was applied to eliminate any artifacts that might have survived the prior corrections. A value difference above 200 V in a 100-ms interval as well as an activity below 0.5 V in a 200-ms period were used as rejection criteria. Next, a current source density (CSD) transformation (Nunez and Pilgreen 1991) (order of splines m = 4, maximum degree of the Legendre polynomials = 10, precision of 2.72?7) was applied to rereference the data. Because of this, the resulting CSD values are given in microvolts per square meter. A baseline correction was applied in the time range from ?200 ms to 0 ms (i.e., prior to target onset) before the segments were separately averaged for Go and Nogo trials with correct responses on a single-subject level. The average number of epochs included in the data analysis was 285 13 for Go trials and 115 10 for Nogo 60643-86-9 manufacture trials. For the classical time-domain analysis of the ERP components, the Nogo-P2 was quantified by extracting the mean amplitude in the time interval from 175 to 180 ms. The Nogo-N2 was quantified by extracting.