Objective We aimed to examine the association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype with neuroimaging markers of Alzheimer’s disease: hippocampal volume brain amyloid deposition and cerebral metabolism. carrier status was associated with atrophic hippocampal volume (pooled SMD: ?0.47; 95% CI ?0.82 to ?0.13; p=0.007) and increased cerebral amyloid positron emission tomography tracer (pooled SMD: 0.62 95 CI 0.27 to 0.98 p=0.0006). APOE ε4 was also associated with decreased cerebral metabolism especially in right middle frontal gyrus. Conclusions APOE ε4 was associated with atrophic hippocampal volume in MRI markers increased cerebral amyloid deposition and cerebral hypometabolism. Theses associations may indicate the potential role of the APOE gene in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. INTRODUCTION Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia accounting for nearly 80% of all cases. The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is by far the major risk factor for dementia especially AD. The ε4 allele has been confirmed as playing a pivotal role in AD because it is less effective in breaking down the peptide amyloid-β which consequently leads to an increased risk of formation of the characteristic AD plaques. However whether the ε polymorphism is also associated with the neuroimaging markers is unclear. Indeed the advances in neuroimaging technologies have allowed us to investigate the relationship in detail between the APOE ε4 allele and certain neuroimaging markers of AD such as structural MRI fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-amyloid tracers capable of delineating the extent and distribution of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits in the brain. Thus with the discovery of this common susceptibility gene for late onset AD numerous explorers became engrossed in using the imaging techniques to detect and track brain changes associated with the predisposition to AD in carriers of the ε4 allele of the APOE gene. Neuroimaging markers of AD including hippocampal atrophy Aβ burden and cerebral glucose hypometabolism are important predictors of AD. BML-277 Dissecting the relationship between the APOE ε4 allele and the neuroimaging markers of AD could give us new clues to the mechanisms underlying the association between APOE and risk of AD. MRI morphological evaluation has been widely used to explore the effect of APOE on the brain in AD subjects. The close clinical/anatomical correlation between hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits makes hippocampal atrophy a candidate marker to monitor disease progression in clinical trials.1 Besides according to a meta-analysis of MRI studies a statistically significant volume reduction of about 12% can be detected even in the preclinical stage.2 A number of previous studies suggest that the APOE genotype has effects on the hippocampal size atrophy and hemispherical lateralisation.3 4 FDG-PET measurements of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgl) provide a promising quantitative neuroimaging endo-phenotype of AD risk. To date Aβ deposition is one of the main hallmarks of AD because it was thought to eventually cause neuronal death. The application of [11C]-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) was regarded as an important tool in imaging Aβ fibrillar pathology in vivo 5 even if it is reported to be a non-specific BML-277 marker of Aβ-peptide related cerebral amyloidosis. The biological Rabbit Polyclonal to GPR152. basis for the underlying effect of APOE ε4 as a risk factor for developing AD is unknown yet. It has been reported that the BML-277 APOE ε4 allele was associated with a faster pathological progression of brain lesions greater cerebral atrophy and lower regional CMRgl. To date no meta-analysis of such studies has been conducted on the association between the APOE ε4 allele and the neuroimaging markers. Thus our aim is to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the relationship of the APOE ε4 allele with the three neuroimaging markers of AD. METHODS Search strategy and selection criteria The literature published from 1 January 1996 to 1 1 March 2014 was systematically screened in the PubMed MEDLINE according to preferred reporting items BML-277 for systematic evaluations and meta-analyses (PRISMA) recommendations using the following terms in the title abstract or descriptors: APOE Apolipoprotein E MRI hippocampal volume PET PiB amyloid glucose Alzheimer disease AD. We restricted the.