Dental caries is a preventable infectious disease which affects the dental hard tissues (enamel dentine and cementum) as a result of bacterial action on sugar substrate over a period of time . world is usually tailored towards early lesion detection which is different from what obtains in the developing countries where although the documented prevalence of caries is usually low the burden of nontreatment is usually high. MPEP hydrochloride Furthermore in many developing countries access to oral health care is limited and decayed teeth are often left untreated . The burden of caries is particularly high among the disadvantaged and the poor in both developing and designed countries . Over the years disease burden has been measured using indices (an index being a standard measure of a disease or condition). Caries burden has been measured using indices such as the Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth index (DMFT) which was developed by Klein and Palmer . This index has been the most widely used index in measuring prevalence of dental caries for over 70 years. It is still the most popular caries index in existence; it however has a few limitations. The mean value of the index is usually skewed in populations with overall low caries prevalence but with a subpopulation with high individual scores. This subpopulation needs more attention when compared to the general populace as they need highly specific intervention. For this subpopulation the significant caries index  is used to determine the magnitude of the disease. It is calculated as the mean dmft of one third of the population with the highest dmft values. Although local and international MPEP hydrochloride studies on dental caries abound in the literature as well as the known sequel of dental caries such as pain missed school days inability to eat and inability to sleep [9-11] studies quantifying the clinical consequences of untreated MPEP hydrochloride caries are few and have only recently been carried out using the ‘Pulp Ulcer Fistulae and Abscess’ (PUFA) index [12 13 This PUFA index was developed in 2009 2009 as a means of quantifying the clinical consequences of untreated caries . This was the first index to address the issue and some validation studies have been conduced [11 13 14 Before the PUFA index quantifying the clinical consequences of untreated caries the severity and complexity of the sequel of untreated caries in Nigeria were just sweeping statements . A validation of this index in the Nigerian populace will help put the picture of the burden of untreated caries in proper perspective allowing for policy formulation for a more holistic management of caries and MPEP hydrochloride reaching the underserved communities. The PUFA index is recommended for Mouse monoclonal to E7 use in conjunction with the DMFT index. This study therefore aims to determine caries prevalence using the DMFT index and ascertain the proportion of children experiencing various clinical consequences of untreated dental caries in a defined urban populace in South-western Nigeria using the MPEP hydrochloride PUFA index. Methodology The sample location was Ibadan North Local Government Area (IBNLGA). This Local Government Area has the highest concentration of colleges within the city of Ibadan and is home to over two hundred and fifty colleges. It is also home to the University of Ibadan (UI) and the University College Hospital (UCH). A cross sectional study was carried out between October 2012 and June 2013. The sample populace consisted of 6 12 months aged pupils from randomly selected colleges in Ibadan North Local Government Area who had dental caries involving at least one tooth. The study assessed the presence and pattern of oral conditions resulting from untreated caries in this age group. The minimum sample size was calculated based on 95% confidence interval and 80% power assuming a 10% loss to follow up. A list of all registered primary colleges in the local government area was obtained from the Oyo State Ministry of Education and the colleges were categorized into private and public colleges. A sampling frame was used and 30 colleges were randomly selected from the two school categories i.e. 15 private primary colleges 15 public primary colleges (this was to enable adequate spread of the sample populace). The random selection was done via a ballot system by an independent individual. At each selected school all the six 12 months aged pupils in the school participated in the study. The school principals/ head teachers were approached to allow entry into the school as.